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Symbols and designations of abrasive tools

Designation system of abrasive tools

Designation of abrasive tool, consistent with the Standard ISO 525, consists of the following groups of alphanumerical characters separated by character “-“.

I group


Type + profile




II group


Technical characteristics

III group


Permissible operating speed (for grinding wheels)

As well as a name and/or manufacturer’s mark.

In addition, the following additional information, in the form of inscriptions or symbols, may be pre¬sent on abrasive wheels, segments and sticks:

  • colour strips acc. to speed colour code
  • safety marks and/or certificate numbers
  • pictograms, personal protection symbols, instructions, limitations in application
  • designation, e.g. “STEEL”, “CONCRETE”, “INOX”, “ALUMINIUM”, etc.
  • symbol of static unbalance orientation of grinding wheel or direction for mounting on spindle

This will be discussed in the following Sections of this Catalogue.Oznaczenia kształtów

Table 2 on page 11 presents a sequence of designations in marking for abrasive tools manufactured by ZWAŚ ANDRE ABRASIVE ARTICLES, Koło.

Shape designations
Standard shapes and sequence of dimensions are presented in the Table 3 on page 14.
The Table is a fragment of Standard ISO 525. Other than standard types, shapes, dimensions of abrasive tools, used on grinding machines in the whole world, may also exists. Therefore, these catalogue sheets contain a wider range of them.

The catalogue sheets specify dimensions of abrasive tools that have been supplied to our customers till now. Other dimensions, shapes, profiles and characteristics may be a subject of analysis, agree¬ments and supplies.

Technical characteristics
Technical characteristics describe features of abrasive tool that have a direct effect on grin¬ding results and work safety. Rules for selection of individual elements of characteristics for particular conditions and requirements of grin¬ding operations will be discussed separately; examples of typical applications will be presented.

Permissible operating speed of grinding wheel
Each grinding wheel has its defined maximum permissible operating speeds:rotational speed and peripheral speed.

The operating speed of grinding wheel is expressed as follows:

  • rotational speed n [min-1] = revolutions per minute or [1/min], [rpm]
  • peripheral speed v [m • s] = metres per second or [m/s]

The formulae for expressing “n” as a function of “v” and vice versa are:

D [mm] = diameter of grinding wheel

Table 4, page 26 facilitates the conversion of the a.m. values for the most commonly used diameters of grinding wheels

Fig. Graphical presentation of relationship between peripheral “v” and rotational “n” speeds

The user must check that the maximum permissible rotational speed specified on the wheel is con¬sistent with that stated on the grinding machine.

In no circumstances the maximum permissible rotational speed of grinding wheel should be exceeded. In case of machines with infinitely variably or stepwise control of spindle speed the rotational speed of grinding wheel can be increased as the wheel wears but no more than the maximal permissible peripheral speed of grinding wheel.

The maximum permissible rotational speed for mounted points is depended on the length the spindle overhangs the grinding machine clamp. This relationship is illustrated in Table 5 on page 27.